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Vegan Or Vegetarian

Over the past decades vegan and vegetarian diets are becoming more popular in people’s mind because of the health benefits, taste, time, environment, cost and ethical principles. Both vegetarian and vegan diet is the healthiest decision which are rich in fibre, magnesium, Ferric iron, folic acid, vitamins C and E, n-6 poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), carotenoids, flavonoids, other phytochemicals and antioxidants compared to Non-Vegetarian. However, these diets are low in total fat, n-3 PUFA, calcium, iodine, zinc, ferrous iron, vitamins B12 and vitamin D.


     Vegan is also known as veganism with High nutritional benefits. Generally, composed of vegetables, fruits, leafy greens, whole grain products, Seeds, legumes and nuts whereas it does not include all meat and animal products such as meat, poultry, fish, seafood, dairy and eggs. Body mass index(BMI)of vegan is comparatively lower than that of vegetarian and non-vegetarian. So it can lower the risk of effects in human health.


Generally veganism classified into three types such as;

  1. Confirmed Vegan
  2. Individualistic Vegan
  3. Organised Vegan 


  • High content of folic acid, dietry fibre, magnesium, vitamins C and E, iron and phytochemicals.
  • According to World Health Organization(WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) ;Lowers the risk of blood lipids, Cancer, obesity, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease(CVD) and type 2 diabetes.
  • Weight can be controlled.
  • Good intentions towards the food follows by vegetarian.
  • Availability of all nutrients throughout the life span 


Health Benefits          Sources
Cardiovascular disease Lower blood cholesterol, lower risk of mortality from stroke and ischemic heart disease.Cardio protective effects.Fruit and vegetable which has high amount of fibre, folic acid, antioxidants, and phytochemicals.Whole grains, soy, and nuts 
Cancer Lower the risk of breast cancer in women Prostate cancer Soy products which contains isoflavones.Soy milk
Bone healthBone metabolismBone resorptionBeneficial effect on bone health in postmenopausal women. 
Fruit and vegetables rich in dietFruit and vegetables rich in potassium and magnesium contentSoy isoflavones


     Deficiency of nutrients in vegan diets include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium(it leads to easy causes of bone fracture), and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acid. It can be reduced by consuming fortified foods such as;

  • Vitamin B-12– fortified food(Ex:Rice beverages, fortified soy)
  • Calcium-fortified foods (Ex: ready-to-eat cereals)
  • Vitamin D–fortified foods(Ex: soy milk, rice milk)
  • N–3 fatty acid ALA (Ex:ground flaxseed, walnuts)



     Vegetarian are also known as vegetarianism. They have chosen a vegetarian for various reasons such as welfare of animals during the process of slaughtering, health, religious motivation, belief and culture, meat-free diet. More than they accepted animals life is equal to human lives. Generally it is based on cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables whereas it does not include animal or fish flesh. Vegetarian diets are associated with feeling of calmness, mental health, reduced aggression, increased compassion for others, and a sense of mental stability. It is more economical than non-vegetarian.


  1. Strict veganism and su vegetarianism(Includes fishes and vegetables)
  2. Raw veganism(Includes Fresh and uncooked fruit, Nuts, Cooked foods  Seeds and Vegetables) 
  3. Lacto vegetarianism(Includes Fruit, nuts, seeds, and  vegetables)
  4. Lacto-ovo vegetarianism(Includes eggs and diary products)
  5. Ovo-vegetarianism(Includes egg)
  6. Pescetarianism(Includes diary products)
  7. Fruitarianism( Includes Fish)

Therefore every diet has controlled quantity of processed foods, large amounts of fruits and vegetables and whole grains associated with prevention of disease and health promotion.


  • Higher content of vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, fibre, folic acid and phytochemicals.
  • More unsaturated fat.
  • Good attitude towards the food.
  • Lower in cholesterol than non-vegetarian.
  • Weight can be controlled.
  • Availability of all nutrients throughout the life span.
  • It can help in the prevention of diabetes, heart disease, obesity and cancer.



Health benefits Sources 
CancerWhole plant foods
Cardiac disease and Type – 2 diabetes Fruits and vegetables 
Lower risks of obesity, hypertension and fatal ischemic heart diseas.Fruits, vegetables, legumes, seaweed, seeds, whole grains, vegetable oils and other plant-based foods


Though having many benefits, also have some disadvantages;

  • Nutrient deficiencies such as iodine, protein, iron, omega-3 fatty acid,protein,calcium,zinc, vitamin b12 and vitamin D.
  • Lower bone density.
  • Vegan children face deficiencies than vegetarian such as growth retardation, body  weight, bone mineral content, motor  and cognitive development.
  • More deficiencies in essential amino acids.
  • More restrictive and difficult to achieve the  intake of daily amount of energy.
  • Low energy consumption and increase the risk of anorexia nervosa.



     There are many type of vegetarian diet, according to its nature they perform their role and functions with numerous health benefits. Convince foods from infants to old age throughout their lifetime. Then veganism  has less in cholesterol and saturated fat, more in dietary fibre compared to vegetarian  and also increased health benefits.


  1. https://www.mattioli1885journals.com/index.php/progressinnutrition/article/view/5229
  2. https://www.academia.edu/44646920/Research_Paper_A_STUDY_ON_VEGAN_DIETS_A_REVIEW_Dr_Sagar_Mohite
  3. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327454405_Being_a_Vegetarian_Health_Benefits_and_Hazards
  4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19279075/
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069426/

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